ICU 58 had returned Double.POSITIVE_INFINITY for all numbers with exponent greater than 1000. This restriction was lifted by #13038. However, GoogleIssue:38194540 found that due to another restriction in com.ibm.icu.math.BigDecimal, an exception is still being thrown for exponents greater than 1,000,000,000.
Test case that fails:
Without diving into the depths of com.ibm.icu.math.BigDecimal, which is being deprecated by #13184, the best way to patch this regression is probably to just return Double.POSITIVE_INFINITY (or NEGATIVE_INFINITY, etc) when the exponent is too large.